Article Type : Research Article
Authors : Orlov S
Keywords : The theory of vortex gravity; Cosmology and cosmogony
A
new principle of origin and nature of the action of gravitational forces is
proposed. Forces of universal attraction are created by ethereal vortices,
therefore the forces of attraction have not centrally, but planesymmetrical
directions. This article presents evidence about the true direction of
gravitational forces. On this basis, it becomes possible to revise many
physical laws and paradoxes in natural science.
As is known, the founder of the theory of universal
gravitation, I. Newton [1], indicated material bodies as the source of forces
of attraction. In 1915, 1916 And Einstein proposed the general theory of
relativity [2]. In this theory, gravitational effects are caused not by the
force interaction of bodies and fields, but by the deformation of spacetime
itself. Deformation is associated with the presence of massenergy. These
theories have one common condition  the forces of attraction are created by
the masses of bodies. Based on this condition, the conclusion follows  the
forces of gravity act centrally symmetrically. That is, they decrease with
distance from the body equally, in all directions. In the author's theory of
vortex gravity [3], it is stated that the forces of attraction act in space
flatly  symmetrically with respect to any space object.
Our Universe has unique qualities, which include the
universal rotation of all celestial objects (celestial bodies or systems of
bodies), of which the visible Universe consists. To date, there is no generally
accepted scientific explanation for these rotations. The proposed model of
gravity, cosmology and cosmogony is based on the condition that celestial
objects received the impulse of their rotation from the vortex rotation, in the
corresponding celestial region, of the cosmic, gaseous medium called the ether.
The rotation of the ether is carried out in accordance with the circulation of
celestial bodies around the center of rotation. That is, the orbital speeds of
rotation decrease in the direction from the center of rotation to the
periphery, according to Kepler's 3rd law, provided that the orbital trajectories
of the ether are circular. In accordance with the Bernoulli principle, the
change in orbital velocities causes an inversely proportional change (increase)
in the pressure in the ether. The pressure gradient creates buoyancy forces.
The buoyant force is the gravitational force. Since the vortex rotates in one
plane, the decrease in the pressure of the ether occurs in the plane of
rotation of the ether. Based on the law of Archimedes, all bodies are pushed
into the plane in which the least pressure occurs. Therefore, the gravitational
forces act in a planesymmetrical manner and it is necessary to abandon the
classical model of the centrally symmetrical action of the gravitational
forces. Ether is an extremely low dense gas that permeates all bodies
(substances), except for super dense ones. Therefore, the ether can push out
only these super dense bodies. These super dense bodies include the nucleons of
atoms. In the theory of vortex
gravitation, the NavierStokes equation for the motion of a viscous liquid
(gas) was used to determine the pressure gradient in the ether vortex.
Where ? is the ether density, and P are, respectively, its velocity and pressure, and ?  the ether viscosity. In cylindrical coordinates, taking into account the radial symmetry v_{r}=v_{z}=0, v_{j}=v(r), P=P(r), the equation can be written as the system:
After the transformations, an equation was
obtained for determining the forces of gravity in the ether vortex:
with the following dependencewhere Vn  the volume of nucleons in the body,which is in the orbit of a torsion with a radius  rether density [4]
As you know, the planets revolve around the Sun in an
ellipse with a slight eccentricity. This fact can be explained from the
standpoint of vortex gravity. In addition, the elliptical trajectory of the
planets will allow the calculation of gravitational forces in a
threedimensional model. The reason for the appearance of
"compression" of the orbits of the planets is the inclination of the
plane of these orbits to the plane of the solar, gravitational torsion, which
is proved by the following conditions. As is known, the planes of orbital
motions of all planets are located with small deviations from each other.
Consequently, the planes of the orbits of the planets also have an inclination
to the plane of the solar gravitational torsion, where the greatest
gravitational force acts on each orbit, and they (the planets), during their
orbital motion, must cross the solar torsion at two points. These points of
intersection are called the centers of perihelion and aphelion. At aphelion and
perihelion, the force of solar gravity acts on the planets with the greatest
magnitude in this orbit and, therefore, the planet's orbit has the maximum
curvature. When the planet exits (deviates) from the plane of the solar
torsion, the forces of gravity decrease, and the trajectory of the planets
"straightens out". A similar cycle of changes in gravitational forces
and the trajectory of movement is repeated for each planet in each revolution
around the Sun. The more the planet's orbital trajectory deviates from the
central plane of the solar torsion, the more the gravitational forces decrease
in these areas. Therefore, the orbit must "shrink" more. The
constant, cyclic change of these forces gives the circulation trajectory an
elliptical shape.At significant inclinations and high speeds, the orbit of a
satellite (meteorite, comet) acquires a hyperbolic or parabolic trajectory.
Therefore, a celestial body, having once circumnavigated the Sun, leaves the
gravitational field of the solar torsion forever.
The change in the dynamic properties of the planets when they turn at points with inclinations to the plane of the gravitational torsion, indicated in Ch. 3 provides an opportunity to obtain a formula that describes the change in gravitational forces in a threedimensional model.Comparing the coefficients of compression of the orbits of all planets with the cosine of the angle of inclination of these orbits to the plane of the solar torsion, we determine that these quantities have a directly proportional relationship:
OB
is the radius of curvature of rotation of the torsionsatellite at perihelion
or aphelion, or at the top of the semimajor axis of the orbit:
OD1 is the radius of curvature of the torsionsatellite
at a point having an inclination by an angle ? from the central plane of the
parent torsion. That is, at the top of the minor semiaxis of the orbit.
Let us prove that equation (6) is satisfied under
equalities (7) and (8)
Figure
1: Projections of the minor and major orbital semiaxes on the same plane.
The
X axis is the projection of the central plane of the torsion bar.
Axis
Z  axis of rotation of the torsion bar
?
is the angle of inclination of the orbital plane of the planet to the plane of
the gravitational torsion.
a
is the projection of the major semiaxis of the ellipse,
c
 Projection of the minor semiaxis
Proof: Let us plot on the X axis (Figure 1), which coincides with the line of apsides, a segment OB equal to the radius of curvature at the apex of the major semiaxis, the direction of which coincides with the central plane of the solar torsion.Let's draw a line from the center O at an angle ?, in the direction from the minor semiaxis.Since, according to the condition cos ? = b/a = OB/OC, it follows from here:
Let's draw a
perpendicular from point C to the X axis, since the angle OCD2 is a straight
line, then:
Let's
draw a perpendicular from point D2 to the OS, since the angle D1 D2 O is a
straight line, then:
Let's draw a perpendicular from point D2 to the OS,
since the angle D1 D2 O is a straight line, then:
Therefore, equations (7) and (8) are satisfied under
the condition cos ? = b/a. That is, the cosine of the angle of inclination of
the planet's orbital plane at the vertex of the minor semiaxis to the solar
torsion plane is equal to the compression ratio of this orbit. Note 2. The
inclination ? of any orbital point does not coincide with the inclination angle
i of this point, indicated in astronomical calendars, since according to
astronomical rules, all coordinates in the solar system are measured
heliocentrically and relative to the ecliptic plane.
Let's write the formulas for determining the radius of
curvature of the orbit (ellipse):
 at the apex of the semimajor axis or at perihelion
and aphelion:
 at the top of the minor semiaxis
Based on Kepler's 2nd law, within their orbit, the
planets change their orbital velocity (V) depending on the distance from the
Sun (R) in the following proportion:
Va  orbital velocity at perihelion (or aphelion),
that is, at the top of the semimajor axis of the planets' orbit,
Vb  orbital velocity at the vertex of the minor
semiaxis of the planets' orbit
Ra is the distance from the Sun to the center of
aphelion (perihelion).
Rb is the distance from the Sun to the top of the
minor semiaxis.
Rcu is the radius of curvature of the orbit
Centrifugal forces are determined by the formula:
Substituting (9)  (11) into (12) we get:
Since the gravitational forces at aphelion or at perihelion Fg correspond to their classical values or centrifugal forces, then to determine the deviation of the gravitational forces on the periphery of the torsion (at the apex of the semiminor axis  point b), it is necessary to determine a similar deviation of the values of centrifugal forces compared to the same forces at perihelion. To do this, we divide formula (14) by formula (13):
Here, the relative value Ra2 / Rb2, in accordance with formula (5)
or Newton's formula, determines the change in the magnitude of gravitational
forces, depending on the change in the distance from the center of the torsion
to the points under consideration. According to formula 6 of this chapter, the
value of b/a is equal to the cosine of the angle of inclination of the
considered point. Consequently, this value determines the change in
gravitational forces depending on the inclination of the considered point to
the plane of the solar torsion.
Then you can write:
The forces of gravity at any point of any comic space are determined by the formula:
Fgn  gravitational force in a
twodimensional model (f. (5) or
Newton's equation)
Fgv is the gravitational force in the 3D
vortex model.
Therefore, with the help of the
gravitational coefficient Kg, one can determine the gravitational forces at any
point of any space torsion far from the center.Note 3. In the central
peripheral part of the torsion, due to the end vortices of the ether, formula
(16) cannot describe the distribution of vortex gravity forces. Formula (16)
shows that when moving away from the plane of the gravitational torsion in the
direction parallel to the axis of the torsion, the gravitational force
decreases in inverse proportion to the cube of the distance of this removal 
1/ s^{3}.
In the author's article [3], the calculation of the gravitational forces acting on the planets Mercury and Pluto during their location in orbit at the top of the minor semiaxes was made. At these points, the orbits of the planet deviate to the maximum from the plane of the solar gravitational torsion. The calculation was made on the basis of Newton's equation of universal gravitation and the equation of vortex gravity (equation 5). The results obtained were compared with the centrifugal forces at these points. Note 4. Centrifugal forces can be calculated as accurately as possible and are always equal to gravitational forces. Therefore, centrifugal forces can be used as a standard for the accuracy of results in determining gravitational forces.Distances and speeds of celestial bodies are taken on the basis of the astronomical calendar^{ [5]}
The length of the semimajor axis of Pluto's
orbit a = 5906.375 x 106 km
The length of the minor semiaxis b = 5720.32 x10^{6} km
Gravity coefficient
Distance from the Sun to the top of the
semiminor axis of Pluto's orbit d = 5907.963 x 106 km
Radius of curvature at the top of the
minor semiaxis Rb = a^{2} / b = 6098.48 x 106 km
Pluto's orbital velocity at the apex of the minor semiaxis Vb = 4.581km/s
Centrifugal forces at the top of the minor
semiaxis based on the above characteristics:
Fc = 0.00344 Mp, where Mp is the mass of
Pluto
The forces of solar gravity at the same
point (according to the classical Newton model)
Fgn = 0.00382 MP (difference with
centrifugal forces + 11.1%)
Forces of vortex gravitation taking into account the gravitational coefficient (equation 7)
Mercury
The length of the semimajor axis of the
orbit of Mercury a = 57.91x 106 km
The length of the minor semiaxis ? = 56,67?106 km
Gravity coefficient
Distance from the Sun to the top of the
semiminor axis of Mercury's orbit d = 58.395x106km
Radius of curvature at the top of the
minor semiaxis Rb = a^{2} / b = 59.177x106 km
Orbital velocity of Mercury at the top of
the semiminor axis Vb = 46.4775 km/s
Centrifugal forces
Fc = 36.503 Mm, where Mm is the mass of
Mercury
Gravitational forces:
According to Newton Fgn = 39.09 Mm, (difference
+7.1%)
According to the theory of vortex gravity
Fgv = 39.09 x 0.9372 x Mm = 36.63 Mm (difference + 0.35%) It is obvious that the
calculation according to the theory of vortex gravity is an order of magnitude
more accurate than the classical method and in its accuracy corresponds to the
accuracy of astronomical measurements. In addition, on the basis of equation
(7) it is obvious that for large deviations of the considered point from the
gravitational plane, the calculation of gravitational forces according to the
classical equation will lead to an absurd result.
Based on the above calculations, it can be argued that the true cause of gravity is a decrease in pressure in the ether, which is caused by the vortex rotation of this ether. Accordingly, the gravitationalbarial field, into which all substances are drawn, has the shape of a disk. Probably, Huygens was right about the assessment of Newton's hypothesis about the gravitational properties of bodies, which created and creates many problems in the scientific world. The author outlined these problems in his article “Paradoxes of the Theory of Gravity” ^{[6].}The theory of vortex gravity provides researchers with great scientific opportunities for new consideration of various physical properties and phenomena that have controversial explanations. Based on the theory of vortex gravity, the author proposed and published his physical models for the following phenomena:

origin and properties of Black
Holes[7]

gravitational properties of
atoms[8]

the genesis of the planet
Earth[9]

equivalence of energy and
atomic gravity[10]

invariance of the speed of
light[11]

masses of celestial bodies[12]

photon mass[13]

reasons for the removal of the
moon[14]

why did the global glaciation
occur [15]

Causes of high and low
tides[16]

the optimal trajectory of
space flights[17]